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Throughout the world, all kinds of measurements are quantified in different ways. To understand measurements accurately and effectively it is important to know how to convert the data from one unit to the other. Here is what you need to know to accurately perform the conversion of units.

Temperature Conversion

One of the most common and necessary conversion units is between Fahrenheit and Celsius. This conversion can be done with a simple formula:

°F = (9/5 × °C) + 32.

(°F − 32) × 5/9 = °C

To convert Celsius to Fahrenheit you take the temperature in Celsius and multiply it by 9/5ths then add 32 to get the temperature in Fahrenheit. To convert Fahrenheit to Celsius you simply do the inverse of the formula.

Weight Conversion

Converting units of weight can get a little more difficult because there are more than two units. Some places use pounds while others use ounces, and others use grams. When converting pounds to ounces and ounces to pounds the conversion is simple. All you need to know is that there are 16 ounces for each pound. If you have a weight in pounds that you need to be converted to ounces you just multiply the number by 16. If you need to go from ounces to pounds you divide the number by 16.

When moving from pounds to the metric system all you need to know is that there are 2.2 pounds for every 1 kilogram (1000 grams). If you have a weight in kilograms you multiply the number by 2.2 to get pounds. If you are converting the opposite way you divide your number by 2.2.

Converting from grams to ounces is a bit more difficult, but it follows the same formula. For every 1 ounce, there are 28.3 grams. Use multiplication and division to make your conversions.

Time Conversion

Time conversion is simple once you understand the number associated with each unit. The chart below breaks down the amount of each unit within the unit that is one step larger.

60 Seconds |
1 Minute |

60 Minutes |
1 Hour |

24 Hours |
1 Day |

7 Days |
1 Week |

12 Months |
1 Year |

When converting time all you need to do is multiply and divide to find the unit that you need. If you are moving from a smaller unit to a bigger unit, you divide the number by the amount of the original unit that is in the new unit. If you are moving from a larger unit to a smaller unit, you multiply. If you are moving multiple places up the scale, from seconds to hours, for example, you will need to convert the original unit step by step.

Speed Conversion

Speed is primarily measured in two units: miles per hour and kilometers per hour. To switch back and forth between the two all you need to know is the formula and the inverse of the formula. There is roughly 1.609 kph in every mph. You can use the following formulas to convert speeds.

Mph x 1.609=kph

Kph/1.609=mph

Fuel Economy Conversion

Fuel economy is the amount of fuel it takes to go a certain distance. The major two units for fuel economy are Miles per gallon (mpg) and Liters per 100km. To convert miles per gallon to liters per 100km you divide the number of miles per gallon by 235.21.

Liters per 100 kilometers = 235.2145/miles per gallon (US)

If you need to convert liters per 100km to mpg:

Miles per gallon (US) = 235.2145/liters per 100 kilometers

Length Conversion

There are over 50 units of length used around the world. The most common systems are the metric system and the system used in the US. Meters, Kilometers, Centimeters, Inches, Feet, and Miles are the most used measurements of length around the world. Use the following chart to help you understand the values of each unit. You can use multiplication and division to move between units.

12 Inches |
1 Foot |

5280 Feet |
1 Mile |

2.54 Centimeters |
1 Inch |

30.48 cm |
1 Foot |

3.281 Feet |
1 Meter |

3280.84 Feet |
1 Kilometer |

1.609 km |
1 Mile |

1609.344 Meters |
1 Mile |

Pressure Conversion

Pressure is the amount of force exerted on or against an object and is measured in a few different units depending on the object. The two most popular units of pressure are bars, pascals, and PSI.

Converting bars to pascals and vice versa is a simple formula. 1 Bar is equal to 100,000 pascals (Pa). To convert pascals to bars:

bars = pascals ÷ 100000

PSI is a more complicated formula as 1 Psi is equal to 6894.757293 pascals (Pa). To convert Pounds per Square Inch to Pascals multiply Pounds per Square Inch * 6894.757293.

Pascals = pounds per square inch × 6894.757293

To convert Pascals to Pounds per Square Inch divide Pascals / 6894.757293

Pounds per Square Inch = Pascals/6894.757293

To convert Bars to Pounds per Square Inch multiply Bars * 14.5038

pounds per square inch = bars × 14.5038

To convert Pounds per Square Inch to Bars divide Pounds per Square Inch / 14.50378

bars = pounds per square inch/14.5038

Power Conversion

Power is the amount of energy output that an object is producing. Power is most often measured in watts. Watts are on a metric system and can be measured by powers of ten as milliwatts, watts, kilowatts, megawatts, and gigawatts.

Watts can be convert

Joules per second are the units that measure the amount of energy that is being burned by an electrical device. You can convert watts to joules per second, but you cannot convert joules per second to watts. To figure out how many joules are being burned by a certain wattage, you can use the following formula:

1W = 1 Joules per second (J/s)

This means that one watt will burn one joule per second. So, a 60-watt lightbulb will burn 60 joules of energy every second that it is turned on.

Angle Conversion

Angles are used in trigonometry and geometry, construction, and mapping and geography, which is why it is very important to understand how to work with them properly. A protractor is the tool often used for calculating the angle between two lines.

Radians and degrees are the two common measures of angle. A full circle has 360 degrees, which means a line is 360 degrees from itself. Aside from degrees and radians, the other different units of angle include milliradians, minutes of arc, gradians, seconds of arc, circles, mils, and revolutions.

A single complete counterclockwise revolution is equivalent to 2π rad in radians. Meanwhile, 1° is equivalent to 0.017453 radians, while one 1 rad is equivalent 57.2958°.

To convert Radians to Degrees divide Radians / 57.295779513.

Degrees = Radians / 57.295779513

You have to multiply an angle by 180°/π to convert it from radians to degrees. On the other hand, to convert an angle from degrees to radians, you just need to multiply it by π/180°.

Area Conversion

Measurements of area indicate the total size of a two dimensional shape. To put it simply, area refers to the amount of space inside the boundaries of two dimensional shapes like a square or a rectangle.

To determine the area, it is important that the same unit of measure is used for all the measurements. Area measurements are frequently used for estimates of construction materials and to determine the sizes of properties.

Before learning how to convert an area, you have to learn how to calculate and measure it first. The area can be calculated by multiplying the length by the width. It is the formula often used to determine the area of a rectangular or square shape.

Area = Length × Width

Here are the most common area conversions of length and area units to give you a better idea:

Length Units |
Area Units |

1 m = 100 cm |
1 m² = (100 × 100) cm² = 10000 cm² |

1 m = 10 dm |
1 m² = (10 × 10) dm² = 100 dm² |

1 cm = 10 mm |
1 cm² = (10 × 10) mm² = 100 m² |

1 km = 1000 m |
1 km² = (1000 × 1000) m² = 1000000 m² |

1 hm = 100 m |
1 hm² = (100 × 100) m² = 10000 m² = 1 hectare (ha) |

1 dam = 10 m |
1 dam² = (10 × 10) m² = 100 m² = 1 ares |

Acceleration Conversion

Acceleration in physical science or physicians refers to the rate of change, or the derivative with regard to time, of velocity. Thus, it is a vector quantity with the dimension length/time². Acceleration in SI units is measured using an accelerometer in meters/second².

There are different formulas used to convert acceleration’s different unit representations. But generally speaking, the common method used to reach the formula depends on individual units in the denominator and the numerator.

Volume Conversion

Volume refers to the amount of space that is consumed by a three-dimensional object, gas, or liquid. This is typically measured with the use of cubic units of length like the cubic inch or specifically named units like the gallon.

Fluid refers to the amount of the three-dimensional space that a fluid substance consumes. Measurements of fluid volume are measured using imperial pints, imperial quarts, imperial gallons, milliliters, and liters.

To calculate the volume of a regular shaped object, you need to measure its side and apply a mathematical formula. It is a bit trickier to find the volume enclosed in objects with irregular shape. One method to determine the volume of irregularly shaped objects is with the use of the technique known as displacement.

With the use of displacement, the object is put inside a liquid container. The amount of displaced liquid will then be measure and will become the object’s volume.

1 cubic meter = 1000 cubic decimeters = 1000000 cubic centimeters = 1000000000 cubic millimeters

The rate of advance between adjacent volume or units of volume is 1000. High-level units are converted to low-level units and then multiplied by the advance rate. The low-level units are converted to high-level units divided by the advance rate.

Energy Conversion

Energy broadly pertains to the potential to cause a change and it comes in different forms. Many energy forms refer to the objects’ changes in movement or their potential to cause other forms of change. Energy in the real world can then be considered the ability to perform a particular action.

The most common energy units include joules, megajoules, kilojoules, gigajoules, calories, megacalories, kilocalories, watt-hours, megawatt-hours, kilowatt-hours,watt-seconds, British thermal units, million BTU, quads, therms, electronvolts, megaelectronvolts, and kiloelectronvolts.

1 kilojoule [kJ] |
1000 joule [J] |

1 kilowatt-hour [kW*h] |
3600000 joule [J] |

1 watt-hour [W*h] |
3600 joule [J] |

1 calorie (nutritional) |
4186.8 joule [J] |

1 horsepower (metric) hour |
2647795.5 joule [J] |

1 Btu (IT) [Btu (IT), Btu] |
1055.05585262 joule [J] |

1 Btu (th) [Btu (th)] |
1054.3499999744 joule [J] |

Frequency Conversion

Frequency refers to the measurement of number of occurrences of repeated event for every unit of time. Frequency can also be defined as rate of change of phase of sinusoidal waveform.

The most common frequency units include hertz, megahertz, kilohertz, terahertz, gigahertz, revolutions per minute, cycles per second, degrees per second, and radians per second.

One Hertz (Hz) means that the event repeats only once per second, while kilohertz (KHz) means the event repeats for one thousand times per second. Meanwhile, megahertz (MHz) means an event repeats for one million times per second. Finally, gigahertz (GHz) means the event will repeat one billion times per second.

To determine the frequency, the number of the event’s occurrences in a a fixed time interval are counted and divided by the time interval’s length.

The formula for frequency formula is Frequency = 1 / Time.

Number Conversion

The number system is the form of expressing the numbers. Number conversion basically involves converting a number of a particular base to the number of a different base. Number systems come in different varieties including binary numbers, hexadecimal numbers, decimal numbers, and octal numbers.

The general representations of the different number systems are the following:

Binary Number – Base 2 – N_{2}

Decimal Number – Base 10 – N_{10}

Hexadecimal Number – Base 16 – N_{16}

Octal Number – Base 8 – N_{8}

Currency Conversion

Currency refers to a unit of exchange that facilitates the transfer of services and goods. It is one form of money, and money in this change is defined as the medium of exchange instead of a store value for example. A currency zone pertains to a region or country where a particular currency is used as the main medium of exchange.

In order to allow trade between different currency zones, exchange rates or prices at which the currencies and the services and goods of the individual currency zones can also be exchanged against one another.

Currencies can also be classified either as fixed currencies or floating currencies according to their exchange rate regime. Currency in common usage often pertains to paper money alone, as in currency and coins. However, it is actually misleading because both paper money and coins are forms of currency.

Force Conversion

Force refers to the cause of acceleration of a body. Newton is the SI unit of force. 1 Newton is equivalent to the force that grants the body of mass 1 kilogram with the acceleration of 1 m/s².

The inertial mass of a body is due to its resistance to acceleration, while the heavy mass refers to the cause of the gravity or attractive force.

*Conversion of Newton in kilogram*

1 kg m/s²

1 Newton (N) |
0.101972 Kilopond (kp) |

1 Newton (N) |
3.596943 Ounce-force (ozf) |

1 Newton (N) |
0.224809 Pound-force (lbf) |

1 Newton (N) |
7.233013 Poundals (pdl) |

*Conversion of kilogram to Newton*

1 kilogram-force (kgf) |
9.80665 Newton (N) |

1 kilopond (kp) |
9.80665 Newton (N) |

1 ounce-force (ozf) |
0.278014 Newton (N) |

1 pound-force (lbf) |
4.448222 Newton (N) |

1 poundal (pdl) |
0.138255 Newton (N) |

Numbers Conversion

There are several techniques or methods that you can use for converting numbers from one base to another. Some of these are the following:

*Decimal to Other Base System*

- Divide the decimal number you want to convert by the new base’s value.
- Get the remainder from the first step as the rightmost digit or the least significant digit of the new base number.
- The quotient of the earlier divide must now be divided by the new base.
- Record the remainder from the third step as the new base number’s next digit to the left.

Repeat the third and fourth steps, getting remainders from right to left, until the quotient reaches zero in the third step The last remainder you obtain will be the new base number’s Most Significant Digit or MSD.

*Other Base System to Decimal System*

- Identify the column or positional value of every digit. It will depend on the digit’s position as well as the number system’s base.
- Multiply the column values you obtained in the first step by the digits in the corresponding columns.
- Add the products you calculated in the second step. The total is equal the value in decimal.

Data Storage Conversion

Computer memory or computer storage pertains to the computer devices, recording media, and components that retain the binary information for a specific time interval.

Active memory or simply memory in casual language often refers to RAM or random access memory, or other forms of temporary or non-persistent but fast storage.

Long-term or storage memory, on the other hand, often refers to the hard disks and other storage forms that might be slower to access yet persistent once the power has been switched off.

It is somewhat trivial mathematically to convert between the different units of data storage, even more so if you are using a calculator. You just need to multiply and divide by 1,024 when using the binary standard. On the other hand, you can multiply and divide by 1,000 if you will use the SI decimal standard.

When converting between –Byte metrics and –bit metrics, don’t forget to divide or multiply by 8 according to the conversion’s direction. Here are a few examples to help you with your data storage conversion:

KB to MB

Sample: convert 2000 kilobytes to megabytes (SI)

KB / 1000 = MB (2000 KB / 1000 = 2 MB)

Sample: convert 2048 kilobytes to megabytes (binary and also KiB to MiB)

KB / 1024 = MB (2048 KB / 1024 = 2 MB)

GB to MB

Sample: convert 10 gigabytes to megabytes (SI)

GB * 1000 = MB (10 GB * 1,000 = 10,000 MB)

Sample: convert 10 gigabytes to megabytes (binary and also KiB to MiB)

GB * 1024 = MB (10 GB * 1,024 = 10,240 MB)

Data Bandwidth Conversion

The term bandwidth may have different meanings in different contexts. When it comes to computing, bandwidth is the bit-rate of consumed or available information and is often expressed in terms of units of bits per second together with its metric multiples.

However, even in computing, bandwidth is still different between data bandwidth, digital bandwidth, and network bandwidth. But among the most common instances when the term bandwidth is used has something to do with the internet. In this sense, bandwidth is the volume of information per every unit of time that a transmission channel or medium can handle.

A bit in information technology is the smallest information unit that can hold just one of the two values: 1 or 0. One byte is made up of 8 bits, with a byte representing values from 0 to 255. A bit refers to the unit of data transfer, which means that a communications system or device with 8 MB bandwidth has 8 Megabits per second as the transfer rate, which is equal to 1 Megabyte per second.

Meanwhile, the byte is the unit of information storage. In terms of a hard disk or memory, 8GB of capacity means it is possible to store 8 Gigabytes of information that is equal to 64 Gigabits.

The amount of bandwidth a company or person requires entirely depends on their internet usage plans. For instance, hosting or streaming large amounts of video will need more bandwidth compared to just browsing the Internet.